Bioethanol is simply ethanol that has been produced using biological materials (biomass) for feedstocks. Since it relies on sunlight and photosynthesis to contribute to the growth of that biomass (plants, grasses, corn, wheat, etc), bioethanol is a renewable fuel. Bioethanol is made when biomass is converted to sugars, which are then fermented into ethanol. The process of hydrolysis seperates most of the water from ethanol, leaving an end product that is generally about 95% ethanol and 5% water. Bioethanol can be blended with conventional gasoline at any ratio, but the most common blend is E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline, sometimes called Gasohol), which can be used in existing gasoline engines without modifications and without affecting vehicle warranty. Higher blends, such as E85, require a Flexible fuel vehicle (FFV)
Developed countries have developed alternative energy that can replace the role of petroleum and natural material resources (especially minerals) that functions as a fuel. Petroleum reserves dwindling due to increasing population needs and the bombast of the world (only China has a population of 1 billion ...) is the driving factor in giatnya scientists seeking new energy sources renewable, cheap and safe for the environment (especially those derived from vegetable ).
Some alternative fuels popular is biodiesel, biogas, biofuels, hydrogen and nuclear energy. Biofuel is one derived from biomass. Biofuel is fuel derived from plants or animals, usually from agriculture, the remaining solids are also of forest products.
Let's see biofuels, especially ethanol. Through the process sakarifikasi (complex sugar solution into simple sugars), fermentation, and distillation, crops such as corn, sugar cane and cassava can be converted into fuel.
Incidentally some time ago found a way of making ethanol from cassava is applied by Mr. H Soerawidjaja Tatang. The following processing capacity of 10 liters per day:
1. 125 kg of peeled fresh cassava, all kinds of dapal utilized. Clean and cut up small size.
2. Dry cassava which has been chopped up to a maximum water content of 16%. Just a dried cassava into cassava. Aim to be more durable so that producers can save as a raw material reserves
25 kg of dried cassava 3.Masukkan into the eel tank stainless steel 120-liter capacity, then add water until it reaches the volume of 100 liters. Heat dried cassava to 100 "C for 0.5 hours. Stir until cooked cassava into pulp and thickens.
4. Chill cassava porridge, and enter into langki sakarifikasi. Sakarifikasi is the process of decomposition of starch into glucose. After the cold, enter the fungus Aspergillus that will break down starch into glucose. To describe the 100 liters of cassava starch porridge. to 10 liters of solution fungus Aspergillus or 10% of the total pulp. Fungi concentrations reached 100-million cells / ml. Sebclum used, Aspergilhis dikuhurkan on cassava porridge was cooked to the adaptive nature of the chemical pulp with dried cassava. Breed fungi break down starch and work
5.Dua hours later, cassava porridge into 2 layers: water and sediment sugar. Stir again starch into sugar that is then put into fermentation tank. However, before making sure blood sugar is fermented starch solution up to 17-18%. That is the maximum sugar content like Saccharomyces unluk bacteria live and work break down sugar into alcohol. If high lebth sugar, add water until it reaches the desired level. Otherwise, add the sugar solution in order to achieve maximum sugar content.
6 Cover tightly fermentation tank to prevent contamination and Saccharomyces work more optimally extract the glucose. Aka anaerobic fermentation lasted not require oxygen. In order for optimal fermentation, keep the temperature at 28-32 "C and pH 4,5-5,5.
7. After 2-3 days, the starch solution into 3 layers. The bottom layer of protein deposition. On top of water, and ethanol. It is fermented beer containing 6-12% ethanol
8.Sedot ethanol solution with a plastic tube through a filter paper measuring 1 micron to filter out sediment protein.
9. Although filtered, ethanol was still bercampurair. To separate them, do distillate or distillation. Heat the mixture of water and ethanol at a temperature of 78 "C or the boiling point of ethanol equivalent. At that temperature evaporates first ethanol than the drip boiling water 100 ° C. Ethanol vapor flowed through the pipes so water-soaked and re-condensed into liquid ethanol.
10 The results of the distillation of 95% ethanol and insoluble in gasoline. In order larul, required ethanol yield is 99% ethanol or dried. Therefore, the need distilled absorbent. 95% ethanol is heated 100 "C. Angene temperature, ethanol and water evaporates. Steam them and then passed into the pipe walls were coated zeolite or starch. Zeolite will absorb the remaining water content up to 99% ethanol obtained ready dieampur denganbensin. Ten liters of ethanol 99%, need 120 to 130 liters of beer are produced from 25 kg of dried cassava